Heat Pumps


The Heat Pump is an alternative energy source operating on the same principle as a fridge or air conditioner with the difference that instead of receiving heat, it provides it. So its task is to take heat from the heat pump’s lower heat exchanger and then transfer energy to the upper heat exchanger.

The types of the heat pump’s lower source are many, for example, air, exchanger placed in a well 50 – 100m, pipe exchanger placed at the bottom of a pond or river, loops. The top sources include all low-temperature heating systems, it can also be a CWU tank.

Is the heat pump profitable?

The heat pump is used as an alternative to electric heating. In this case it is very profitable as it consumes up to 5 heat units using one unit of electricity. With gas or oil systems, a heat pump can also be a more cost-effective solution, but in this case it is necessary to know the prices of these fuels.

As for the advantages unrelated to money, a properly selected heat pump is practically maintenance-free, i.e. there is no need to clean, switch on or off. The second advantage is the lack of any pollution because the heat pump works only on electricity.


How it’s working ?

Land as a source of heat. The ground stores the ambient heat seasonally, and thus for a longer period. As a result, during the year we have heat at a relatively constant high temperature, and thus a high COP. The use of heat stored in the ground takes place through horizontal ground heat exchangers (flat collector) or vertical heat exchangers (earth probes).

The heat is taken in a closed circuit (brine circuit), in which it is pumped into the heat pump’s operating medium through the evaporator.

Description: The yield is determined basically by the soil properties and the amount of water and minerals present in it. Solid, moist soils are better sources of heat than sandy and sandy soils. The ground is regenerated mainly due to rainfall entering it.


How it’s working ?

The horizontally laid ground heat exchanger requires a larger surface – about 1.5 to 2.5 times higher than the heated living space. The surface of the exchanger’s arrangement must be accessible, undeveloped and not covered with water-impermeable elements. The exchanger is placed at a depth of 1.2-1.5m. In the areas of new construction it is possible to arrange the collectors in a very simple way already during construction works. A layer of soil is collected from the required surface, and once the exchanger is installed, it is backfilled again. The exchanger can also be placed in a suitable ditch. This limits the scope of earthworks.

Description: If none of these methods is possible, a vertical ground exchanger can be made. Vertically placed earth probes require less surface area than a flat plate collector. As ground probes must be made by competent drilling companies, this usually means higher costs than horizontal ground heat exchangers.

As a source of heat, the ground offers almost constant temperatures over the year. For a heat pump system, this results in a high efficiency factor with low energy consumption. Glycol / water heat pumps are usually operated in monovalent mode (independent, without cooperation with an additional heat source).


How it’s working ?

Heat source – air. In the case of air-to-water heat pumps, outdoor air is usually used as the heat source. In the case of commercial and industrial facilities, it is also possible to use air from rooms and exhaust air outside.

The use of air from rooms or exhaust should, however, be determined with our techniques already at the initial planning stage
Wykorzystywanie powietrza z pomieszczeń jako źródła ciepła ma uzasadnienie w przypadku The use of air from rooms as a source of heat is justified in the case of industrial facilities with a large amount of exhausted warm air or when it is necessary to cool rooms.

It is unacceptable to use air with ammonia or chemically contaminated air (eg air discharged from farm buildings). A special case is controlled ventilation of living rooms with heat recovery.

Description: Air-to-air heat pumps are often installed in ventilation units. An example of a simple heat pump of this type is the air conditioner. Low, well-calculated installation costs are a significant advantage of air as a heat source.

The use of air does not require any permits. Air / water heat pumps can be placed inside or outside the building. The internal setting requires air ducts for supplying and discharging outside air.

Outdoor installation requires less space; here you must follow the instructions for the setting (mainly due to the acoustic emission). Air-to-water heat pumps are a low-budget alternative to other heat sources. They are most often exploited in a monoenergetic system with a point of selection (bivalent point – a parallel work point) between -2 and -7 ° C. In this case, the heat pump covers approximately 95-98% of the total annual energy demand.


RWT Sp. z o.o.
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